She continued in this role until 4 May,[5] by which time she had expended her main battery ammunition. Captive Allied seamen still aboard the ship were released. The ship had a design displacement of 12,630 t (12,430 long tons; 13,920 short tons) and a full load displacement of 14,290 long tons (14,520 t),[1] though the ship was officially stated to be within the 10,000 long tons (10,000 t) limit of the Treaty of Versailles. First, renaming the ship would confuse Allied intelligence; Raeder also recognized the propaganda value of the sinking of a ship that bore the name of its country. Bad weather hampered her efforts, and she only sank or captured a handful of vessels before returning to Germany. [29], On 30 December, Lützow, the heavy cruiser Admiral Hipper, and six destroyers left Narvik for Operation Regenbogen, an attack on convoy JW 51B, which was reported by German intelligence to be lightly escorted. All saw action in the Spanish Civil War (the Deutschland being bombed and suffering her first action casualties), all made raiding sorties in to the Atlantic, and all saw action with surface forces. [3] After the completion of fitting out work, initial sea trials began in November 1932. [33], Langsdorff was unwilling to risk the lives of his crew, so he decided to scuttle the ship. The pocket battleships had an eventful career with the Kreigsmarine. This handsome volume provides a complete pictorial history and timeline of the first member of the class, Deutschland. The Admiral Hipper-class cruiser Lützow was designated for sale to the Soviet Navy, and it was hoped that the usage of her name for Deutschland would hide the transaction. Lützow's forward gun turret was hit by one of the 15 cm rounds, which disabled the center gun and damaged the right barrel. [11] Deutschland was ordered to strictly observe prize rules, which required raiders to stop and search ships for contraband before sinking them, and to ensure that their crews are safely evacuated. Her desalination plant and galley were also destroyed, which would have increased the difficulty of a return to Germany. The Americans met the German crewmen, who were still in Montevideo. She was laid down at the Reichsmarinewerft shipyard in Wilhelmshaven in October 1932 and completed by January 1936. The ship saw significant action with the Kriegsmarine, including several non-intervention patrols, during which she was attacked by Republican bombers. [40], In February 2004, a salvage team began work raising the wreck of Admiral Graf Spee. The Admiralty broadcast a series of signals, on frequencies known to be intercepted by German intelligence. The ship's remaining ammunition supply was dispersed throughout the ship, in preparation for scuttling. [9] Two bombs struck the ship; the first penetrated the upper deck near the bridge and exploded above the main armored deck while the second hit near the third starboard 15 cm gun, causing serious fires below decks. [12] She also participated in extensive fleet maneuvers in German waters. The ship accidentally started sliding down the slipw… [37] The ultimate fate of Lützow was long unclear, as with most of the ships seized by the Soviet Navy. The Allied press coined the moniker "pocket battleship," which stuck. [8] After joining the fleet, Admiral Graf Spee became the flagship of the German Navy. "G" denoted that the equipment was manufactured by GEMA, "g" indicated that it operated between 335 and 440, "Convention (XIII) concerning the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers in Naval War", "What should Uruguay do with its Nazi eagle? [10] The 4,963 gross register tons (GRT) freighter was found to be carrying contraband, and so was seized. Find out why the Deutschland Class Pocket Battleship makes our top ten list! [15] In early November, the Naval High Command recalled Deutschland; she passed through the Denmark Strait on 15 November and anchored in Gotenhafen on the 17th. [11], On 5 October, she found and sank the British transport ship Stonegate, though not before the freighter was able to send a distress signal informing vessels in the area of Deutschland's presence. The Deutschland was the first ship of a new type known as Panzerschiff (armoured ship), referred to as "pocket battleship" by the British. Gardiner, Robert; Chesneau, Roger, eds (1980). Her keel was laid on 1 October 1932,[7] under construction number 125. The prisoners aboard Huntsman were transferred to Altmark and Langsdorff then sank Huntsman on the night of 17 October. The ship's first commander was Kapitän zur See (KzS) Conrad Patzig; he was replaced in 1937 by KzS Walter Warzecha. The Deutschland/ /Lutzow was the luckiest of the pocket battleships Germany constructed. During the deployment, her gun turrets were painted with large black, white, and red bands to aid in identification from the air and indicate her neutral status. [2] The ship also carried a pair of quadruple 53.3 cm (21 in) deck-mounted torpedo tubes placed on her stern. [28], Lützow left Germany on 15 May 1942 for Norway; by 25 May she had joined Admiral Scheer in Bogen Bay. Repairs were completed by March 1941, Lützow returned to Norway to join the forces arrayed against Allied shipping to the Soviet Union. Damaged at the Battle of Drøbak Sound, she was recalled to Germany for repairs. The quarry was the Allied convoy JW51B on its way to deliver supplies to the USSR and protected by now fewer than six British destroyers. The prize crew recovered secret documents containing shipping route information. The heavy damage forced Lützow and the rest of the squadron to reverse course and exit the fjord. Her sister Admiral Scheer was to join Lützow for the operation, and on 12 June, she departed for Norway with an escort of destroyers. On 18 December, the ship, with only Langsdorff and 40 other men aboard, moved into the outer roadstead to be scuttled. The Norwegians, including those manning the guns at the Oscarsborg Fortress were on alert, however. They used the knowledge thus acquired to try to develop countermeasures, under the leadership of Fred Hoyle at the British radar project. The harsh conditions negatively affected her shooting, which ceased by 12:03 without any hits. A third struck her superstructure behind the port-side aircraft crane. The RAF made another failed attack two days later, but on 16 April, a force of eighteen Lancasters scored a single hit and several near misses on Lützow with Tallboy bombs in the Kaiserfahrt. Deutschland was the lead ship of her class of heavy cruisers (often termed a pocket battleship) which served with the Kriegsmarine of Nazi Germany during World War II. Authenticast Comet … [16] In the course of her raiding mission, she sank only two vessels and captured a third. [12] Hitler hoped to secure a negotiated peace with Britain and France after he overran Poland, and he therefore did not authorize Deutschland to begin her raiding mission against British and French shipping until 26 September. Admiral Graf Spee was a Deutschland-class "Panzerschiff" (armored ship), nicknamed a "pocket battleship" by the British, which served with the Kriegsmarine of Nazi Germany during World War II. This ship served with the Kriegsmarine of Nazi Germany during World War II. [41] On 10 February 2006, the 2 m (6 ft 7 in), 400 kilograms (880 lb) eagle and swastika crest of Admiral Graf Spee was recovered from the stern of the ship;[42] it was stored in a Uruguayan naval warehouse following German complaints about exhibiting "Nazi paraphernalia". She had her aircraft catapult installed in this period, and was provided with two Heinkel He 60 floatplanes. [39] The historian Hans Georg Prager examined the former Soviet archives in the early 2000s, and discovered that Lützow actually had been sunk in weapons tests in July 1947.[40]. [5][38] Historians Hildebrand, Röhr and Steinmetz, in their book Die Deutschen Kriegsschiffe, state that she instead sank off Kolberg, claiming that the Lützow broken up in the late 1940s was instead the Admiral Hipper-class cruiser Lützow that had been sold to the Soviet Union in 1940. She next saw action at the Battle of the Barents Sea with the heavy cruiser Admiral Hipper, which ended with a failure to destroy the convoy JW 51B. [9], Deutschland spent the majority of 1938 and 1939 conducting training maneuvers with the rest of the fleet and making goodwill visits to various foreign ports. [15], On 5 October, the British and French navies formed eight groups to hunt down Admiral Graf Spee in the South Atlantic. The Admiral Graf Spee was instructed to strictly adhere to prize rules, which required raiders to stop and search ships for contraband before sinking them, and to ensure that their crews are safely evacuated. [18] Force G, commanded by Commodore Henry Harwood and assigned to the east coast of South America, comprised the cruisers Cumberland and Exeter. [25] The rest of Group 5 remained in Norway,[26] so Lützow cruised at top speed to avoid submarines. Kummetz then turned back north to draw the destroyers away. [9], Deutschland quickly weighed anchor and left port. Trials were completed by December 1933, and the ship was ready for active service with the fleet. Ten days later, however, Hitler ordered the men be exhumed and returned for burial in Germany. [19], On the same day as the formation of the Anglo-French hunter groups, Admiral Graf Spee captured the steamer Newton Beech. [1], The ship also carried a pair of quadruple 53.3 cm (21.0 in) deck-mounted torpedo launchers placed on her stern. She made an official visit to Spain following the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War 1939. She returned to Norway in early November with a destroyer escort, arriving in Narvik on the 12th. Engine problems forced a series of repairs culminating in a complete overhaul at the end of 1943, after which the ship remained in the Baltic. She was joined by her newly commissioned sister ship Admiral Scheer for a cruise into the mid-Atlantic, which included a stop in Madeira. [1] Her keel was laid on 5 February 1929,[2] under construction number 219. [35], Lützow, sunk in the Kaiserfahrt, on 26 April, Hitler was furious over the failure to destroy the convoy, and ordered that all remaining German major warships be broken up for scrap. [32], As a result of battle damage and casualties, Langsdorff decided to put into Montevideo, where repairs could be effected and the wounded men could be evacuated from the ship. Admiral Graf Spee was 186 meters (610 ft) long overall and had a beam of 21.65 m (71 ft) and a maximum draft of 7.34 m (24 ft 1 in). The pocket battleships played an important role in the Second World War at sea – perhaps a disproportionately large role relative to their power and the cost of building and maintaining them. [17] The British crew later reached the Brazilian coast in their lifeboats. [1] Radar initially consisted of a FMG G(gO) "Seetakt" set; in 1942, a FuMO 26 set was also installed. While replenishing his fuel supplies, Langsdorff ordered superfluous equipment transferred to the Altmark; this included several of the ship's boats, flammable paint, and two of her ten 2 cm anti-aircraft guns, which were installed on the tanker. [4] The ship also made a series of goodwill visits to foreign ports, including visits to Gothenburg, Sweden, and in October 1934, a formal state visit to Edinburgh, Scotland. At 06:20, Exeter returned fire, followed by Ajax at 06:21 and Achilles at 06:24. Fuel shortages restricted operations, although Lützow and Admiral Scheer were able to conduct limited battle training exercises. The Admiralty complained about the large sum paid for the salvage rights. Built between 1903 and 1908, the ships closely resembled those of the preceding Braunschweig class, though they had stronger armor protection. [37] In the aftermath of the scuttling, the ship's crew were taken to Argentina, where they were interned for the remainder of the war. This ship became a legend with its own demise. Between 18 April and 17 May 1939, she conducted another cruise into the Atlantic, stopping in the ports of Ceuta and Lisbon. Save money and get a big ship POCKET battleship James Taylor has smashed Kevin Pietersen's claims that he is too small for international cricket over the fence ahead of his return to the big stage. [8], Following the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936, Deutschland and Admiral Scheer were deployed to the Spanish coast on 23 July 1936 to conduct non-intervention patrols off the Republican-held coast of Spain. Her keel was laid on 5 February 1929, under construction number 219. [17] Grand Admiral Erich Raeder, the commander in chief of the Kriegsmarine, made the decision to rename the ship, for several reasons. Pocket battleships of the Deutschland class : Deutschland/Lützow, Admiral Scheer, Admiral Graf Spee Koop , Gerhard , Schmolke , Klaus-Peter The warships of the World War II era German Navy are among the most popular subject in naval history with an almost uncountable number of books devoted to them. [23], The damage Lützow sustained prompted the Kriegsmarine to order her to return to Germany for repairs. [2] Ordered as Ersatz Braunschweig, Admiral Graf Spee replaced the old pre-dreadnought battleship Braunschweig. [lower-alpha 1] In 1940, she was renamed Lützow, after the Admiral Hipper class heavy cruiser Lützow was handed over to the Soviet Union. [30] At 06:08, the British spotted Admiral Graf Spee; Harwood divided his ships to split the gunfire of Admiral Graf Spee's 28 cm guns. [21] Newton Beech was too slow to keep up with Admiral Graf Spee, and so the prisoners were transferred to the cruiser. Her crew rigged scuttling charges to destroy the hull, but a fire caused the explosives to detonate prematurely. [32], Langsdorff thought the two light cruisers were making a torpedo attack, and turned away under a smokescreen. There are a total of [ 3 ] WW2 German Pocket Battleships (1939-1945) entries in the Military Factory. [3] Admiral Graf Spee was powered by four sets of MAN 9-cylinder double-acting two-stroke diesel engines. [33] Most of the hits scored by the British cruisers caused only minor structural and superficial damage but the oil purification plant, which was required to prepare the diesel fuel for the engines, was destroyed. [25] Despite the setback, KzS August Thiele, Lützow's commander, was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross for his actions during the Battle of Drøbak Sound, during which he took command of the task force after the loss of Blücher. Hitler, furious over the attack, ordered Admiral Scheer to bombard the port of Almería in retaliation for the so-called "Deutschland incident". [17], Lützow was assigned to Group 5, alongside the new heavy cruiser Blücher and the light cruiser Emden, under the command of Konteradmiral Oskar Kummetz. Twenty-four of the convoy's thirty-five transports were sunk. Deutschland was laid down at the Deutsche Werke shipyard in Kiel on 5 February 1929, under the contract name Panzerschiff A, as a replacement for the old battleship Preussen. She then participated in Operation Weserübung, the invasion of Norway. On 12 December, the ship's Arado 196 broke down and could not be repaired, depriving Graf Spee of her aerial reconnaissance. The German force was strong with the heavy cruiser KMS Admiral Hipper and pocket battleship Lutzow. Aware that surprise had been lost, the Germans broke off the surface attack and turned the destruction of PQ-17 over to the U-boats and Luftwaffe. [21], Shortly before midnight on the night of 8 April, Group 5, with Blücher in the lead, passed the outer ring of Norwegian coastal batteries. Admiral Graf Spee was a Deutschland-class "Panzerschiff" (armored ship), nicknamed a "pocket battleship" by the British, which served with the Kriegsmarine of Nazi Germany during World War II. [34] Under Article 17 of the Hague Convention of 1907, neutrality restrictions limited Admiral Graf Spee to a period of 72 hours for repairs in Montevideo, before she would be interned for the duration of the war. The two sister-ships of her class, Deutschland and Admiral Scheer, were reclassified as heavy cruisers in 1940. [24] The ship was only able to fire her secondary battery in return. The purpose of that foray was to divert Allied warships away from the South Atlantic, and to confuse the Allies about his intentions. [20] Lützow embarked over 400 of the soldiers for the voyage to Norway. The British Admiralty immediately issued a warning to merchant shipping that a German surface raider was in the area. Their top speed of 28 knots (52 km/h; 32 mph) left only the few battlecruisers in the Anglo-French navies fast enough and powerful enough to sink them.[1]. Thats often cited as the reason and may or may no be true but theres also another, more practical reason for the name change. While en route, the British submarine HMS Triton attacked the flotilla, though her torpedoes missed. [25] While replenishing supplies, the crew of Admiral Graf Spee built a dummy gun turret on her bridge and erected a dummy second funnel behind the aircraft catapult to alter her silhouette significantly in a bid to confuse allied shipping as to her true identity. Deutschland's armored belt was 60 to 80 mm (2.4 to 3.1 in) thick; her upper deck was 17 mm (0.67 in) thick while the main armored deck was 17 to 45 mm (0.67 to 1.77 in) thick. The main battery turrets had 140 mm (5.5 in) thick faces and 80 mm thick sides. [11] In 1938, KzS Hans Langsdorff took command of the vessel;[8] she conducted a series of goodwill visits to various foreign ports throughout the year. The Pocket Battleship Branch is a sub-branch alternative to the nominal Battleships and are initially just heavily armored Heavy Cruisers. [38], The wreck was partially broken up in situ in 1942–1943, though parts of the ship were visible for some time after; the wreck lies at a depth of only 11 m (36 ft). At a cruising speed of 20 kn (37 km/h; 23 mph), the ship could steam for 10,000 nautical miles (19,000 km; 12,000 mi). The Kit: This is an excellent little kit, exceeding I believe Tamiya's early waterline efforts. Book Summary: The exciting account of the famous German battle cruiser which sank 152,000 tons of Allied shipping. [2] The ship's top speed was 28.5 knots (52.8 km/h; 32.8 mph), at 54,000 PS (53,260 shp; 39,720 kW). In respect of the Versailles Treaty as amended by the 1922 Washington Agreement, German naval architects had apparently put a quart into a pint pot. [18] At this time, she was re-rated as a heavy cruiser and renamed Lützow. In March 1935, she sailed as far as the Caribbean and South American waters. On 8 October, the following day, she sank Newton Beech,[20] which Langsdorff had been using to house prisoners. The British had been surprised by the accuracy of the gunnery and expected to find a radar range finder, which they did. [7] Deutschland participated in fleet maneuvers in German waters in early 1936. At 05:52, however, the ship was identified as HMS Exeter; she was accompanied by a pair of smaller warships, initially thought to be destroyers but quickly identified as Leander-class cruisers. As designed, her standard complement consisted of 33 officers and 586 enlisted men, though after 1935 this was significantly increased to 30 officers and 921–1,040 sailors. Regardless, the British submarine HMS Spearfish attacked the ship and scored a serious hit. The German Navy worked around the Treaty of Versailles limitations to create this special group of steel warships. [1], US Navy recognition drawing of Deutschland, Deutschland's primary armament was six 28 cm (11.0 in) SK C/28 guns mounted in two triple gun turrets, one forward and one aft of the superstructure. [6] Deutschland was powered by four sets of MAN 9-cylinder double-acting two-stroke diesel engines. The Deutschland class armored ship were popularly called "pocket battleships". [10] The French Force de Raid, centered on the battleship Dunkerque, was occupied with protecting convoys around Britain to prevent them from being attacked by Deutschland. The German pocket battleships, or Panzerschiffe, struck fear into every navy in the world when they were developed and deployed in the 1930's. [23] At the end of October, Langsdorff sailed his ship into the Indian Ocean south of Madagascar. At 09:15 on the 31st, the British destroyer Obdurate spotted the three destroyers screening for Admiral Hipper; the Germans opened fire first. Originally classified as an armored ship (Panzerschiff) by the Reichsmarine, in February 1940 the Germans reclassified the remaining two ships of this class as heavy cruisers. About the … [30] Lützow returned to Germany for repairs, which lasted until the end of October. [38] A crowd of 20,000 watched as the scuttling charges were set; the crew was taken off by an Argentine tug and the ship was scuttled at 20:55. A hit in the bow would also have negatively affected her seaworthiness in the heavy seas of the North Atlantic. The port was attacked by Republican aircraft, though anti-aircraft fire from the warships drove them off. Even before the outbreak of WW2, 21 U-boats and the pocket-battleships Admiral Graf Spee and Deutschland had sailed into the Atlantic Ocean to wait for a conflict with Great Britain and France in this large sea area. The “pocket battleship” (panzershiffe: "armored ship"), was a German warship officially classified by weight as a heavy cruiser but with the firepower of a battleship.The design was meant to comply with the terms of the Versailles Treaty (which allowed post-WWI Germany only a couple of battleships over 11,900 metric tons) while providing the German Navy with … Langsdorff was ordered to avoid combat, even with inferior opponents, and to frequently change position. Kampfgruppe 2 was assigned to Operation Rösselsprung, a planned attack on the Allied convoy PQ 17, which was headed to the Soviet Union. [2], Admiral Graf Spee's armored belt was 100 mm (3.9 in) thick; her upper deck was 17 mm (0.67 in) thick while the main armored deck was 45 to 70 mm (1.8 to 2.8 in) thick. Soon after the outbreak of the conflict in 1939, the Lutzow and Graf Spee were dispatched to the Atlantic to begin hunting the merchant vessels carrying vital supplies to sustain Britain during the war, and after surviving a British air attack that cost the RAF four bombers and did minimal dam… Two days later, she encountered and sank the merchant ship Ashlea. [9] The salvage rights were purchased from the German Government by the British, for £14,000, using a Montevideo engineering company as a front. [13] By this time, Deutschland had moved south to hunt in the Bermuda-Azores sea lane. [10] In the summer of 1936, following the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, she deployed to the Atlantic to participate in non-intervention patrols off the Republican-held coast of Spain. Burnett's ships approached from Admiral Hipper's starboard side and achieved complete surprise. [8] The attack killed 31 German sailors and wounded 74. At the outbreak of World War II, she was cruising the North Atlantic, prepared to attack Allied merchant traffic. The British cruisers turned toward Lützow and came under fire from both German cruisers. This handsome volume provides a complete pictorial history and timeline of the first member of the class, Deutschland. Hitler saw the battle of the surface raiders in the Barents Sea as the perfect mission for success. [32], On 13 April 1945, twenty-four Avro Lancaster bombers attacked Lützow and Prinz Eugen without success due to cloud cover. The closest heavy units—the carrier Ark Royal and battlecruiser Renown—were some 2,500 nmi (4,600 km; 2,900 mi) away, much too far to intervene in the situation. Machinery comprised of twelve marine-type boilers powering three triple expansion steam engines, which turned three sh… Steaming into the Oslofjord at a speed of 12 knots (22 km/h; 14 mph), the Germans came into range of the Norwegian guns; the 28 cm, 15 cm and 57 mm guns opened fire on the invaders. The ship participated in a major fleet exercise into the Atlantic with her sister Admiral Graf Spee, the light cruisers Köln, Leipzig, and Nürnberg, and several destroyers, U-boats, and support vessels. Admiral Graf Spee returned to the Atlantic between 17 and 26 November to refuel from Altmark. Unable to steer, she was towed back to port and decommissioned for repairs, which lasted for nearly a year. [2], Admiral Graf Spee's primary armament was six 28 cm (11 in) SK C/28 guns mounted in two triple gun turrets, one forward and one aft of the superstructure. Vtg Dml Testors Nos 1/700 Factory Sealed Model Kit Double Submarine Uss Dallas. The ship was equipped with two Arado Ar 196 seaplanes and one catapult. [16] Langsdorff ordered a distress signal sent to the naval station in Pernambuco to ensure the rescue of the ship's crew. [37][39] The multiple explosions from the munitions sent jets of flame high into the air and created a large cloud of smoke that obscured the ship which burned in the shallow water for the next two days. She ran aground during a planned attack on convoy PQ 17, which necessitated another return to Germany for repairs. This ship served with the Kriegsmarine of Nazi Germany during World War II. Admiral Graf Spee took Clement's captain and chief engineer prisoner but left the rest of her crew to abandon ship in the lifeboats. Between September and December 1939, the warship sank nine vessels totaling 50,089 gross register tons (GRT), before being confronted by three British cruisers at the Battle of the River Plate on 13 December. Force G was reinforced by the light cruisers Ajax and Achilles; Harwood detached Cumberland to patrol the area off the Falkland Islands while his other three cruisers patrolled off the River Plate. Meanwhile, on 14 October, Deutschland encountered and sank the Norwegian transport Lorentz W Hansen,[10] of some 1,918 GRT. ", Shipwrecks and maritime incidents in December 1939, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=German_cruiser_Admiral_Graf_Spee&oldid=1006060275, Military units and formations of Nazi Germany in the Spanish Civil War, World War II shipwrecks in the Atlantic Ocean, World War II shipwrecks in the South Atlantic, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 February 2021, at 20:43. [22], On 22 October, Admiral Graf Spee encountered and sank the steamer Trevanion. According to historians Erich Gröner and M. J. Whitley, the Soviet Navy raised the ship in September 1947 and broke her up for scrap in 1948–1949. [31], Lützow meanwhile steamed toward the convoy from the south, and at 11:42 she opened fire. She began a brief set of trials starting on 30 October. These were either to break out and seek refuge in Buenos Aires, where the Argentine government would intern the ship, or to scuttle the ship in the Plate estuary. [32] The respite allowed Exeter to withdraw from the action; by now, only one of her gun turrets was still in action, and she had suffered 61 dead and 23 wounded crew members. Sunk in the Kaiserfahrt in April 1945 by Royal Air Force (RAF) bombers, Lützow was used as a gun battery to support German troops fighting the Soviet Army until 4 May 1945, when she was disabled by her crew. A smokescreen head for the salvage rights speed, successfully evading the British Royal Navy the incident and confirm as... 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