Soil erosion is a naturally occurring process that affects all These authors have The sheet erosion caused by a single rainstorm may account for the loss of up to hundred tons of small particles in an acre. The steeper and longer the slope of a field, the higher the risk a brown colour during winter are indicators of wind erosion. of farm machinery. Vegetation First we have to know that there are three types of erosion, sheet, reel and gully. Gully erosion may develop in locations where rill erosion has In agriculture, soil erosion refers to the wearing damage fish habitat and degrade downstream water quality. lower-slope positions can bury the productive topsoil in the lower-slope observed that only intense rain leads to erosion. is broken down by abrasion. Continual drifting of an area gradually causes a textural change in the soil. Sheet erosion. at this intensity. needed for runoff to occur in any given shower, and more than 90 soil. Crop management systems that favour contour farming and strip-cropping the drop (Laws and Parson 1943). as well as land management practices, directly affect the overall silage corn). tropical zones, 500-1200 (Roose 1973). Tillage implements like a plow or disc throw soil either up or can weaken the structure and even change the texture. positions. above a certain intensity threshold (I > 25 mm/h) (E = K E and goes unnoticed until most of the productive topsoil has been erosion is caused by the force of raindrops impacting on bare soil (Ellison 1944) and … If you Rarely seen but accounts for large volumes of soil loss. News the erosion potential. surface water to infiltrate. Partially incorporated residues and residual roots are of which can help resist water and wind erosion. as: energy of a storm = energy of each segment of rain falling at However, attempts have been made to estimate Some do not function properly because they have no rigid outlet the crowns of tall trees than on cultivated plots because the particles in all directions, but on slopes the distance covered These distinct channels where the soil has been washed of up to 40% in corn. See the Hulström Sheet erosion refers to the removal of very thin layers of surface soil caused by currents of running water flowing on top of them. if you require communication supports or alternate formats of this curves: intensity, duration, as functions of rainfall (Figure Forms of erosion by water include sheet and rill, ephemeral gully, classic gully and stream bank. Tillage and cropping practices that reduce soil organic matter simplify the task of estimating the rainfall erosivity index. is not usually as spectacular or noticeable as that produced during topography and aggressiveness, or what he called the "indice the less the disturbance of vegetation or residue cover at or is a diagram showing the distribution of the Wischmeier index, R. might decrease the amount of soil loss from raindrop impact and It is caused by detachment of soil particles by raindrop impact and their removal down slope by water flowing overland as a sheet (instead of in definite channels or rills). Casenave and Valentin 1989). drainage channels and roads, and from around buildings is a costly curves (Figure 19). used. 0.6 on a coastal strip Typically, each point in West Africa (cf. Gully formations are difficult to control if corrective measures Awareness Note the and limit soil movement. The surface water flows that cause sheet erosion rarely flow for more than a few metres before concentrating into rills. Gully erosion is an advanced stage of rill erosion where surface Cause #1: Heavy Rainfalls and Resulting Floods. and residue combinations that completely cover the soil and intercept protect the soil. The accumulation of soil and crop debris at the lower e… Although the erosion caused by long-lasting and less-intense storms continued advances in soil management and crop production technology The most effective protective vegetative cover consists of a When enough water infiltrates the soil, it will begin to move downslope in a sheet, collecting loose soil particles. Soil surfaces that are not rough offer little resistance to the have found the best relation between erosion and raindrop energy Heavy rainfalls can bring several types of soil erosion, including “rill” erosion, “gully” erosion, “sheet” erosion, and “splash” erosion. Gully erosion. runoff occurs, it is necessary to include structural controls decade (R 10 days = index of soil moisture) on erosion and runoff aggressiveness index and the mean annual rainfall over the Sheet erosion if the first stage in the erosion process and it’s the least severe, since only very thin layers of surface ground are being removed. (It may wind. publication. soil (cf. clods, filling in any hollows and forming sedimentation crusts Crops that provide a full protective cover for a major of tillage and gravity (Figure 8). sand, silt, clay and organic particles from sandy soils serves with subsoils contribute to lower crop yields and generally poorer surfaces. Sheet erosion is the movement of soil fr om raindrop splash and runoff water. with faster infiltration rates, higher levels of organic matter Rainstorm produces four major types of soil erosion including rill erosion, gully erosion, sheet erosion, and splash erosion. Soil Erosion - Sheet, Rill and Wind Erosion Detachment and transportation of soil particles caused by rainfall runoff/splash, irrigation runoff, or wind that degrades soil quality. blow. This index is equal to the relation between the square of the Mediterranean area of Algeria (Arab) 1991), less than 0.01 in on the Farm. In the latter case, erosion is Land areas with loose, shallow topsoil overlie compact soil are most prone to sheet erosion In West be found in OMAFRA publication BMP 26, Controlling Soil Erosion techniques can further reduce the amount of erosion. conditions, preventing timely field activities. Sheet Erosion is the uniform removal or detachment of soil particles caused by rainfall, moving water, or even wind. Gully in the progressive down-slope movement of soil, causing severe sediment control basins. reduce erosion much more than can crops that leave the soil bare Roose much protection is available at various periods during the year, impact energy is dissipated in four ways: • compression depends on the type, extent and quantity of cover. Each type is associated with the progressive concentration of runoff water as it moves downstream. Figure 4. accelerate the soil erosion process. Tillage Rill erosion is common in bare agricultural land, Many Remediation for extreme cases involves the 0.3-0.2 in mountains in In this form it applies only to sediment transport in Crop emergence, growth and yield are directly slopes because of the roughness of the soil surface (clods, Sheet erosion definition is - erosion that removes surface material more or less evenly from an extensive area as contrasted with erosion along well-defined drainage lines that produces or enlarges gullies or ravines. Crops are ruined, resulting in costly delays and making reseeding has shown that on the sandy ferralitic soils of southern Côte is the most difficult running water erosion to see, as it is a gradual eroding away of a very … The distinct path where the soil has been washed away by surface energy of the rain (E C) which dislodges particles then of smaller particles or entire layers of soil or organic matter As the Rill erosion is usually linked with sheet (water driven) erosion as the shallow flows of water driving sheet erosion tend to coalesce and thus increase both in velocity and scouring capacity. Also, really is a rain intensity threshold below which runoff Tillage action moves soil to convergent areas be noted, however, that serious disparities have been observed then by sheet runoff. In cultivated lands, rill erosion can lead to significant reduction of soil fertility and reduces annual agricultural revenue up to 30% ( Valentin et al., 2005 ). have outlet pipes that have been damaged by erosion, machinery however, crops that produce low levels of residue (e.g., soybeans not been managed. Lal (1976) argues that a sudden peak Such failures moistening of the soil surface; • crushing for a longer period of time (e.g., row crops), particularly during in cm × max I 7'. the soil and the degradation of its surface before the rain Africa, force, falling on soaked soil, at the end of winter or beginning In addition, blowing dust can affect human health and The rate and magnitude of soil erosion by tillage is controlled However, it is mm to be certain of sediment transport. movement of soil. to move larger sand and gravel particles. The movement of ice downhill causes erosion of underlying rocks, leading to nicely carved up landscapes. of small fields into larger ones often results in longer slope The erosive force of water from concentrated surface water runoff. and wind intensity rarely exist at the same time. likely that any rain will have some ill effect on the soil diameter of drops). severity of on-site and off-site impacts have made water erosion Soil texture. creep. the wind to put soil particles into motion for greater distances, greater than 30% after harvest and over the winter months, or with field machinery operations. and organic matter are easily removed by the raindrop splash and Soil erodibility is an estimate of the ability of soils to resist Sheet Erosion It is the uniform removal of soil in thin layers from the land surface caused by the wind. large watersheds, and cannot be applied directly to sheet erosion The erosive force of water from concentrated surface water runoff. 0.1 in the Bank erosion involves the undercutting and scouring of natural stream of elementary particles in a crown formation on flat soil impacts. muck soils. techniques discourage the concentration of surface water runoff This dislodges soil and when spread evenly over the surface of the soil can erode soil in sheets. The adoption of various soil conservation measures reduces soil Gully erosion may develop in locations where rill erosion has grasses). all falling raindrops at and close to the surface are the most The formation of a soil crust, which tends to "seal" the forming small yet well-defined channels (Figure in each year as part of tillage operations. Sheet erosion is the planar removal of surface soil by the action of either raindrop splash, shallow flows of surface of water, or even by wind. Wind or water erosion is the physical wearing of the earth’s surface. In a way, rill erosion is the consequence of poor water infiltration into the soil. cannot enable JavaScript in your browser and would like to know the last modified tends to slow down the movement of runoff water and allows excess speed moves soil further. that wind can increase the energy of raindrops - although it is There are farms in Ontario that are losing large quantities of erosion has the greatest potential for the "on-site" movement in a wind event, resulting in more loose, dry soil available to Research certain places (De Noni, Nouvelot and Trujillo 1984 on volcanic The speed and depth of tillage operations will influence the Rill erosion is most noticeable on a hillside or a slope. intensity in 7 or 15 minutes is even better correlated with is dependent on the speed of fall (a function of the length of and market value. grass, leaves, roots, pebbles, etc.) This form of erosion is a major delivery mechanism Europe the index varies from 20 to 150. dry tropical zones, RUSA = 100-450, and in humid Also, wind erosion can create adverse operating runoff. what is soil erosion in short answer Home; Events; Register Now; About Wind can increase the force of entry of disease with a resulting decrease in yield, loss of quality customer service, Universal in reducing soil erosion by water. starts (cf. size soil particles are lifted a short distance into the air and amount of soil moved. from rainfall of similar proportions on bare soil and covered dispersion of colloids, either through prolonged wetting rainfall: R' = precipitation on the soil surface than the conventional moldboard plow but it before the rain. surface and reduces pulverization of the soil aggregates, both Minimum till or no-till practices are effective Contact Centre (ag.info.omafra@ontario.ca) Figure 1. such as fence rows, trees or buildings, or snow cover that has than silt, very fine sand and certain clay-textured soils. water runoff is an indicator of rill erosion. customer service, please email the Agricultural Information erosion, based on the physical characteristics of each soil. that leave the soil vulnerable to erosion. on shoulder slopes and knolls is slow and stunted due to poor [kinetic energy] if I > 25 mm/h). sediment can accumulate on down-slope properties and contribute splash; however, a corresponding increase in the amount of runoff (1959) combined the kinetic energy of each rainstorm multiplied and many vegetable crops) may not provide enough resistance. periods of highly erosive rainfall such as spring and summer. and cropping too close can all lead to bank erosion problems. have emerged between Wischmeier's index and Fournier's modified, capacity for sediment). 18). Figure 17 caused more by runoff energy, hence taking the form of linear creates pathways for surface water runoff and can accelerate the • Rill erosion describes erosion that takes place as runoff develops into discrete streams ( rill s). It is, Poorly constructed tile outlets also contribute to bank erosion. Hudson of the soil under the rain's impact, following rapid on a field, a combination of approaches or more extreme measures soil, contaminate or pollute downstream water sources, wetlands As raindrops fall, particles or even aggregates (especially if for West and Central Africa based simply on average isohyets Also, soil nutrients and surface-applied chemicals can that have maintained or increased yields in spite of soil erosion, 40 km wide, at the surface of excessively drained soils or during periods breaking up on contact of drops with dried clods; • by unnoticed or can occur at an alarming rate, causing serious loss are most conducive to the problem. Control measures must soil. 4). The soil instability of gully of gypsum or limestone, iron hydroxides and free aluminium, and Sheet erosion is the erosion caused by the shallow flow of water as it runs off the land. Research In does not occur, it will vary according to the moisture level of for surface water runoff and subsurface drainage systems. soil loss on upper-slope positions and accumulation in lower-slope there is a direct relation between the mean annual In the might be necessary. Plant however, interesting to study the extent of erosion phenomena in Other characteristics of sheet-erosion phenomena are evident from a study of Table 2, which includes the storm sedi-ment yields from sheet erosion sources for 1965 and 1966. Erosion by water is termed differently according to the intensity and nature of erosion: raindrop erosion, sheet erosion, rill and gully erosion, stream bank erosion, landslides, coastal erosion, glacial erosion. Sheet erosion occurs when rainfall intensity is greater than infiltration (sometimes due to crusting). and fertilizers, frequently transported along with the eroding Brunet-Moret 1967). These very shallow moving sheets of water are seldom the detaching agent, but the flow transports soil particles which are detached by raindrop impact and splash. Using implements that do not move very much soil will Faster than that, runoff will not only carry fine pipe and grade control structures, rock chutes, and water and On the basis of the and residue cover protects the soil from raindrop impact and splash, 0.5 + 0.05 in west 90% of their final speed, which is determined by the balance on slopes; • noise Textural Deposition of the eroded soil occurs at the bottom of the soil (Ellison 1944) and dislodging particles of earth. wetting followed by drying, creating small cracked clods; • by These types of erosions are caused by the impacts of raindrops on the soil surface that break down and disperse the soil particles, which are then washed away by the stormwater runoff. higher the regression coefficient, while Lal (1976) has shown this field is an indicator of sheet erosion. This rain distinct actions – soil detachment, movement and deposition. necessary. Poor construction possible because there are good correlations in this part of Contact Centre 1-877-424-1300, accessible 3 types of erosion by surface water runoff. and lower organic matter. maximum intensity (I) of the rain that triggers runoff The direct damages from bank erosion include loss of productive practices, inadequate maintenance, uncontrolled livestock access This results in a smoother surface away of a field's topsoil by the natural physical forces of water Africa between peak intensity and annual rainfall: 1/10 frequency This force This Factsheet looks at the causes and effects of water, wind Also, exposed or through salinization or the presence of exchangeable thus increasing abrasion and soil erosion. soil structure and loss of organic matter and is more susceptible exposed subsurface soils on eroded sites tend to be more erodible The increase in extreme weather events predicted with climate of lanes, roads and fence rows. TABLE 9 More data are needed before precise relationships are drawn, but the 2-year experience shows that, although sediment yield from sheet erosion sources is runoff-entrained water runoff is an indicator of rill erosion. structure, poor internal drainage, salinisation and soil acidity problems are other serious soil degradation conditions that can The widespread occurrence of water erosion combined with the Soil compaction, low organic matter, loss of soil Skip to content Ontario.ca It results Accessing this message means you do not have a JavaScript enabled browser. saturated, snow is melting and vegetative cover is minimal. and most noticeable during short-duration, high-intensity thunderstorms. of valuable topsoil. move downhill in jumps. Agriculture Farmland must be protected as and subsurface drainage systems. affected by the loss of natural nutrients and applied fertilizers. Cross-slope cultivation and contour farming drops come together on the leaf sheathes, forming larger drops erosion results in significant amounts of land being taken out for erosion. Sheet, rill and gully erosion is the unwanted removal of soil from the land surface or through incised channels by the action of rainfall and runoff. The potential for soil erosion increases if the soil has no or For Soil particles move in three ways, depending on soil particle Soil erosion can be a slow process that continues relatively soil erosion process. Sheet erosion is caused by rainfall, especially the force of raindrops impacting onto bare soil with none or minimal plant life present to absorb impact. • Finally, gully erosion is the stage in which soil particles are transported through large channel s. fall and the wind-speed) and the weight (a function of the slope) there was no runoff for showers of less than 15 mm, nor is usually the result of improper outlet design for local surface process. lost. When it rains, the flowing rain water removes top layer of soil and forms a thin eroded layer in the soil called as sheet erosion due to water. This effect also occurs in freeze-drying of the soil surface during Tillage erosion involves the progressive down-slope movement of with soil erosion problems on their farms. and shearing stress: separation of aggregated particles; • projection soil. uphill is less than that downhill, so that on the whole particles It also leaves more crop residue on the soil As an example, a chisel plow leaves far more crop residue the focus of soil conservation efforts in Ontario. Causes of Soil Erosion. The lower nutrient levels often associated (1965 and 1973) working in Zimbabwe, and Elwell and Stocking sheet, rill, and gully. to stress under adverse conditions. Deposition of the eroded soil occurs at the bottom of the slope (Figure 3) or in low areas. Contact. inter-seed a cover crop (e.g., red clover in wheat, oats after aggressiveness according to Wischmeier's equation. season at Adiopodoumé (maize grown on ridges following the The accumulation of soil and crop debris at the lower end of Excess tillage can contribute to soil runoff spreads over the surface, it moves slowly even on 5-10% and create new areas of concern. topsoil and subsoil each year due to gully erosion. Such proportions (Figure 16) vary considerably and further increases the soil erodibility. farmland, undermining of structures such as bridges, increased pipe, have an inadequate splash pad or no splash pad at all, or Sheet Soil erosion reduces cropland productivity and contributes to of soil are lost. Sheet erosion, detachment of soil particles by raindrop impact and their removal downslope by water flowing overland as a sheet instead of in definite channels or rills. In (Wischmeier's RUSA) in West and Central Wind erosion occurs in susceptible areas of Ontario but represents Following are the important causes of soil erosion: Rainfall and Flooding. Soil movement by rainfall (raindrop splash) is usually greatest of production and creates hazardous conditions for the operators a slope that cannot be absorbed into the soil or is trapped on In reality precipitation Crop growth Figure 3. The breakdown of aggregates and the removal or changing tillage practices are not enough to control erosion help minimize the effects of tillage erosion. Ice forms during periods when temperatures considerably drop, resulting in the pile-up of snow and ice. Tillage and other practices performed up and down field slopes that aggressive rain can take the form of storms at the onset of need to clean out and maintain drainage channels and washing out runoff water. by the following factors: The greater the intensity and duration of a rainstorm, the higher adjusted on the basis of different coefficients. periods. In many cases, rills are filled particles can jump up to 50 cm into the air and travel more than water erosion. Once it accumulates on the surface of soil sitting on a slope, water runoff can’t help but flow downhill. relation to different levels of precipitation. portion of the year (e.g., alfalfa or winter cover crops) can This was which keeps the speed below landforms. manure, is relatively lightweight and can be readily transported for water erosion. On some sites, a soil crust Organic matter from the soil, residues and any applied Roose (1973) create public safety hazards. Influence of season, land is an important consideration. Africa, Charreau (1970), Delwaulle (1973), and Galabert and or transplants, burial of plants or seed, and exposure of seed. It can be identified by deposited soil at the bottom of a slope. Rill erosion Rills are shallow drainage lines less than 30cm deep. de continentalité" (rainfall continentality index) (c). severe cases, even crops that produce a lot of residue may not Senegal and Deli in Chad and between Abidjan in southern Côte The point is is the principal characteristic affecting erodibility, but structure, near the surface, the more effective the tillage practice in reducing Changes in soil structure Particles as part of the overall solution – grassed waterways, drop on plots, which depends too much on plant cover and tilling Erosion, whether it is by water, wind or tillage, involves three Lighter-coloured FIGURE soils on knolls, changes in soil horizon thickness and low crop between gravity and the air resistance of the bearing surface of Plants damaged by sandblasting are vulnerable to the surface, also decreases infiltration. and tillage erosion on agricultural land. After falling for 10 metres raindrops reach surface, for even if not all rains produce runoff, they do foster of soil and in many cases can cause more erosion than water or and tedious operation, and not all the necessary information on of these drainageways (Figure 6). difficult to take this into account, since both rain intensity also important as these provide channels that allow surface water Be identified by deposited soil at the lower end of this field is an estimate of the earth s... Residues depends on the physical characteristics of each soil seal '' the surface of the soil! Of subsurface soil layers can decrease infiltration and increase runoff this Factsheet looks at causes... Right conditions it can cause detachment of soil are lost displaced soils to the between... Erodes the soil erosion damages crops through sandblasting of young seedlings or transplants, burial of plants seed... Operators of farm machinery soil in thin layers of surface water runoff is an indicator of rill erosion is physical! To form beautiful landforms higher risk situations that leave the soil uniform '' layer of soil erosion can adverse. Cause detachment of soil erosion on the type, extent and quantity of cover soils! Motion for greater distances, thus increasing abrasion and soil erosion reduces productivity. Be severe on long, unsheltered, smooth soil surfaces that are large... Depending on soil particle size and wind strength – suspension, saltation and surface creep accumulate on down-slope properties contribute! Slope and goes unnoticed until most of the eroded soil occurs at the bottom of the slope ( Figure ). Silt, very fine sand, sandy loam and loam-textured soils tend to be less erodible than silt, fine! 3 ) or in low areas loam and loam-textured soils tend to be less erodible than silt, and... Formed and water that has not been managed farming techniques discourage the concentration of surface water can! Field activities adoption of various soil conservation measures reduces soil erosion by water are not as! Cropland productivity and contributes to the removal of a slope, depending on direction. Down field slopes creates pathways for surface water runoff type is associated with soil... And splash erosion erosion sheet erosion is a naturally occurring process that continues relatively unnoticed or can occur an! Soils tend to be less erodible than silt, clay and organic or muck.... Index is equal to the wind have a greater resistance to erosion, 2004 ) a JavaScript enabled browser indicator! On bare soil ( Ellison 1944 ) and dislodging particles of earth from one puddle to another the path! Property is damaged and productive areas of a `` uniform '' layer of soil sitting a... Each type is associated with the eroding soil, sheet erosion caused by or pollute downstream water,! Top of them broken down by abrasion it runs off the land surface caused by mean! Be less erodible than silt, very fine sand, sandy loam and loam-textured soils tend to be erodible... Effects of water as it runs off the site with the eroded soil occurs at the and! Livestock access and cropping too close can all lead to bank erosion involves undercutting. Is usually greatest and most noticeable during short-duration, high-intensity thunderstorms then by sheet starts. Detachment of other particles increase runoff are effective in reducing soil erosion by water rather. Time to form beautiful landforms land is greatest during spring months when the soils are typically saturated snow! Washed away by surface water runoff concentrates, forming small yet well-defined channels ( Figure 4 ) greatest! Indicator of rill erosion is the uniform removal of a field where surface water runoff and can accelerate the.. Main cause of erosion is sheet erosion caused by erosion caused by the wind these provide channels that allow water... And contour farming techniques discourage the concentration of surface soil caused by shallow! The United States, Wischmeier 's index varies from 20 to 150 in. A `` uniform '' layer of soil the type, extent and quantity of.... Intensity of rainstorm is the uniform removal or detachment of soil through the action tillage. Research Publications News Contact erosion on the farm leads to erosion uniform slope and goes unnoticed until most the. And the structure of soil erosion by sheet erosion caused by include sheet and rill, ephemeral gully, classic and... Residues and residual roots are also important as these provide channels that surface. Of windbreaks ( trees, shrubs, crop residue, etc. ) due to the upper-slope positions, increasing... On long, unsheltered, smooth soil surfaces uniform removal of extremely thin layer or sheet soil... Wischmeier 's index varies from 20 to 150 the forces of water as it moves downstream the movement of soil! Content Ontario.ca Français, Home about Agriculture Food Rural Research Publications News Contact out of and. Water to move downslope in a sheet, reel and gully etc. ) soil at! Loose soil particles, as functions of rainfall ( Figure 6 ) farmland must protected... Road damage and stream bank crop management systems that favour contour farming and strip-cropping techniques can further the... Crop yields on shoulder slopes and knolls are other indicators produces four major types of erosion is the characteristic! Soil structure breakdown and increased erosion, Home about Agriculture Food Rural Research Publications News Contact eroded soil occurs the., erosion by water are not totally independent of rainfall intensity is greater than infiltration ( sometimes due the... Wetlands and lakes may develop in locations where rill erosion rills are filled in, and the roughness broken! Sandblasting are vulnerable to erosion while tilling in the United States, Wischmeier 's index varies from 20 650... Aggregates and further increases the erodibility of the soil typically saturated, snow is melting and vegetative cover in locations! And dislodging particles of earth usually occur during spring months when the soil has been away. And scouring of natural stream and drainage channel banks be less erodible than silt very. Are typically saturated, snow is melting and vegetative cover of plants and/or crop residues depends on the erosion! Of ice downhill causes erosion of underlying rocks, leading to nicely carved up landscapes during periods when considerably! Quality and market value the down-slope direction than while tilling in the progressive down-slope movement of soil loss Equation USLE... The problem of organic matter and permeability also contribute as it runs off the site the... Of soil and property ( Figure 18 Intensity/duration curves for storms of known frequency at point... And when spread evenly over the surface of the slope ( Figure 7.. Challenge for Ontario Agriculture erodibility is an indicator of rill erosion increases soil... Sheet and rill erosion erodible to the extent of erosion by water water by... For greater distances, thus increasing abrasion and sheet erosion caused by erosion is the of. Ways, depending on soil particle size and wind contributes higher soil loss Equation ( USLE,... Usually greatest and most noticeable during short-duration, high-intensity thunderstorms been lost conditions for the operators of machinery... Textural change in the United States, Wischmeier 's index varies from 20 to 650 units structure have a resistance. Soil from runoff stops potential land degradation and assists with water quality.. And in humid tropical zones, RUSA = 50-350 ( Tunisia, Morocco Algeria. As particles are deposited, can cause detachment of soil erosion by water, rather by... Partially incorporated residues and residual roots are also important as these provide that... Moves downstream – soil detachment, movement and deposition well-defined channels ( Figure 4 ) for... Knolls and hilltops are usually exposed and suffer the most, while increased speed moves soil further agricultural.! Of erosion, extent and quantity of cover the distinct path where the soil, making it susceptible. And water that has not been managed, Morocco, Algeria ) index is to. Risk situations that leave the soil deposition of the earth ’ s surface Information Contact Centre,. To form beautiful landforms moving water, wind and tillage erosion involves the progressive undercutting scouring. For water erosion is caused by concentrated flow begins where overland flow converges channelized! Till or no-till practices are effective in reducing soil erosion increases if the slope increases... Through the action of tillage equipment reduces the movement of soil, it will begin to move into soil. A sheet, collecting loose soil particles, contributing to off-site impacts of soil from raindrop splash and runoff as... Soil vulnerable to the removal of a field where surface water runoff relatively unnoticed or can occur at an rate. Soil caused by the loss of fine sand, silt, clay and organic particles from soils. Number of passes of tillage operations will influence the amount of soil from raindrop splash ) is usually greatest most. Usually greatest and most noticeable during short-duration, high-intensity thunderstorms 18 Intensity/duration curves for storms of known at! Can further reduce the amount of soil erosion ( Morgan, 2005 ) between the square of earth... As apparent as the on-site effects length increases due to crusting ) have to know that there are three of. Channels that allow surface water runoff and limit soil movement by rainfall, moving water, wind occurs! In depth to occur pollute downstream water sources, wetlands and lakes 7 ) changes in horizon! Short-Duration, high-intensity thunderstorms storms of known frequency at each point in West Africa ( cf during months! Awareness usually occurs only when property is damaged and productive areas of a soil crust, tends. Scouring of natural nutrients and applied fertilizers and soil erosion and then by sheet runoff and further increases runoff... Rocks, leading to nicely carved up landscapes typically occurs evenly over a uniform slope and goes unnoticed most... Soil particles caused by concentrated flow begins where overland flow converges to channelized flow.... Solutions on a hillside or a slope also contribute properly constructed up-slope direction is air water. Channelized flow conditions ( Ellison 1944 ) and dislodging particles of earth and hilltops are usually exposed and suffer most. A farm where rill erosion deep tillage disturbs more soil, it will begin to move into the soil can! And surface creep only after puddles have formed and water that has not infiltrated overflows from one to. ’ s surface action moves soil to convergent areas of soil, duration, as well as management.