… In India, the Prime Minister is called Pradhān Mantrī, literally meaning the Head of ministers or Prime Minister. Other common forms include president of the council of ministers (for example in Italy, Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri), President of the Executive Council, or Minister-President. [4] The monarch could no longer establish any law or impose any tax without its permission and thus the House of Commons became a part of the government. PM’s inaugural address at the National Metrology Conclave in New Delhi. In practice the prime minister acts on the impulse of the president to whom he is a subordinate, except when there is a cohabitation in which case his responsibilities are akin to those of a prime minister in a parliamentary system. The term prime minister in its French form, premier ministre, is attested in 17th Century sources referring to Cardinal Richelieu[1] after he was named to head the royal council in 1624. The prime minister of the French Republic (French: Premier ministre français), sometimes shortened to premier, is the head of government of France. France's constitution (1958) lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of France. The People's Republic of China constitution set a premier just one place below the National People's Congress in China. Click Here for Donation Details About PM CARES Fund. Japan's constitution (1946) lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Japan. Most prime ministers in parliamentary systems are not appointed for a specific term in office and in effect may remain in power through a number of elections and parliaments. Estonian Prime Minister Juri Ratas said he would resign on Wednesday amid corruption allegations against his political party. In the United Kingdom, for example, the tradition whereby it is the prime minister who requests a dissolution of parliament dates back to 1918. In some monarchies the monarch may also exercise executive powers (known as the royal prerogative) that are constitutionally vested in the crown and may be exercised without the approval of parliament. During the whole of the 18th Century, Britain was involved in a prolonged conflict with France, periodically bursting into all-out war, and Britons took outspoken pride in their "Liberty" as contrasted to the "Tyranny" of French Absolute Monarchy; therefore, being implicitly compared with Richelieu was no compliment to Walpole. In India, prime ministerial candidates must be a member of parliament, i.e. In many cases, though commonly used, "prime minister" is not the official title of the office-holder; the Spanish prime minister is the President of the Government (Presidente del Gobierno). Ukraine's constitution (1996) lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Ukraine. Spain's constitution (1978) regulates the appointment, dismissal, powers, functions and duties of the President of the Government. Older constitutions often vest this power in the cabinet. She remained continuously in power until 1990, though she used the assembly of each House of Commons after a general election to reshuffle her cabinet. After 1661, Louis XIV and his descendants refused to allow one of their ministers to be more important than the others, so the term was not in use. Although there was a cabinet, it was appointed entirely by the monarch, and the monarch usually presided over its meetings. 3. In parliamentary systems a prime minister may enter into office by several means. As a result, cabinets were often toppled twice a year, and there were long stretches where France was left with only a caretaker government. As well as being head of government, being prime minister may require holding other roles or posts—the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, for example, is also First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service. Decrees and decisions of the prime minister, like almost all executive decisions, are subject to the oversight of the administrative court system. The post of prime minister may be encountered both in constitutional monarchies (such as Belgium, Denmark, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Malaysia, Morocco, Spain,[note 2] Sweden, Thailand, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom) and in parliamentary republics, in which the head of state is an elected official (such as Finland, the Czech Republic, France, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia (1945–1959), Ireland, Pakistan, Portugal, Montenegro, Croatia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Turkey (1923–2018)) and Italy). In Pakistan, the prime minister is referred to as Wazir-e-Azam, meaning "Grand Vizier". Although the roles of the Spanish head of government coincide with the definition of a 'prime minister', in Spain the position is in fact referred to as 'the Presidency of the Government'. This process consists of placing a bill before the Assembly, and either the Assembly overthrows the Government, or the bill is passed automatically (article 49). From 1721 this was the Whig politician Robert Walpole, who held office for twenty-one years. In the United Kingdom the prime minister and former prime ministers may appear to also be styled Right Honourable, however this is not due to their position as head of government but as a privilege of being current members of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council.[12]. Kings sometimes divided power equally between two or more ministers to prevent one minister from becoming too powerful. Itineraries Ottawa, Ontario - January 17, 2021. Bahrain's former prime minister, Sheikh Khalifah bin Sulman Al Khalifah occupied the post from 1970 to November 2020, making him the longest serving non-elected prime minister. The prime minister sits in the cabinet solely by virtue of occupying another office, either First Lord of the Treasury (office in commission) or more rarely Chancellor of the Exchequer (the last of whom was Balfour in 1905). In a situation in which a ruling party elects or appoints a new leader, the incoming leader will usually be referred as "prime minister-in-waiting". [15] The Constitution Act, 1982, adds passing reference to the "Prime Minister of Canada" [French: premier ministre du Canada] but as detail of conferences of federal and provincial first ministers.)[16]. Between 1921 and 1972, when Northern Ireland was a Majority Rule Parliament the head of government would be known as the Prime Minister of Northern Ireland. All prime ministers defend the programs of their ministry, and make budgetary choices. Although managing the parliament was among the necessary skills of holding high office, they did not depend on a parliamentary majority for their power. Jüri Ratas resigned as prime minister of Estonia and head of the Centre Party on Wednesday, amid allegations of corruption against his party. In most systems, the prime minister is the presiding member and chairman of the cabinet. Prime Minister’s itinerary for Monday, January 18, 2021 . The monarchs of England and the United Kingdom had ministers in whom they placed special trust and who were regarded as the head of the government. When it arises, such a state of affairs is usually referred to as (political) cohabitation. Which Members, though, are left to uncodified convention. The Constitution Act, 1867 only establishes the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, to which all federal ministers (among others) are appointed and with Members[note 3] of which the Monarch or her Governor General normally performs executive government (as Queen- or Governor-in-Council). Some remain in place,” Polish prime minister Mateusz Morawiecki explained in 2017. Germany's Basic Law (1949) lists the powers, functions and duties of the federal chancellor. The prime minister of the French Republic (French: Premier ministre français), sometimes shortened to premier, is the head of government of France. The convention in the English language is to call nearly all national heads of government "prime minister" (sometimes the equivalent term "premier") except in the cases where the head of state and head of government are fused into one position, usually a presidency, regardless of the correct title of the head of government as applied in his or her respective country. In Australia, the Prime Minister is expected to step down if they loses the majority support of their party under a spill motion as have many such as Tony Abbott, Julia Gillard, Kevin Rudd and Malcolm Turnbull. Under Walpole, the doctrine of cabinet solidarity developed. Most notably, the legislature had the power to force the entire cabinet out of office by a vote of censure. Under the circumstances, the president of the council was usually a fairly weak figure whose strength more dependent on charisma than formal powers. The title was first referred to on government documents during the administration of Benjamin Disraeli but did not appear in the formal British Order of precedence until 1905. The few exceptions to the rule are Germany and Austria, whose heads of government titles are almost always translated as Chancellor; Monaco, whose head of government is referred to as the Minister of State; and Vatican City, for which the head of government is titled the Secretary of State. August 1960 in Berg-Seelscheid Werdegang Abitur 1980: Mitglied der FDP Ausbildung zum Bankkaufmann Studium der Volks- und Betriebswirtschaftslehre an den Universitäten Münster und Bonn 1987: Abschluss als Diplom-Volkswirt 1987 bis 1991: Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter … The prime minister is the holder of the second highest office of France. As a result, a prime minister has only been censured once during the existence of the Fifth Republic, in 1962 when Georges Pompidou was toppled over objections to President Charles de Gaulle's effort to have the president popularly elected. In such systems, the head of state or their official representative (e.g., monarch, president, governor-general) usually holds a largely ceremonial position, although often with reserve powers. He is referred to as "president" in both the Persian and English languages. Some states, however, do have a term of office of the prime minister linked to the period in office of the parliament. The head of government of the People's Republic of China is referred to as the Premier of the State Council and the premier of the Republic of China (Taiwan) is also appointed by the president, but requires no approval by the legislature. Hungary's constitution (2012) lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Hungary. Norway's constitution (1814) lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Norway. The prime minister and government can be dismissed by the National Assembly. The Prime Minister's executive office is usually called the Office of the Prime Minister or Cabinet Office. In a minority of systems, notably in semi-presidential systems of government, a prime minister is the official who is appointed to manage the civil service and execute the directives of the head of state. 2. Estonian prime minister quits over corruption probe. Accordingly, it is often said "not to exist"; indeed there are several instances of parliament declaring this to be the case. Instead, her or his powers, duties, appointment and termination follow uncodified conventions. A prime minister is the head of the cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system. Today, the prime minister is often, but not always, a member of the Legislature or the Lower House thereof and is expected with other ministers to ensure the passage of bills through the legislature. [2], The term prime minister in the current sense originated in the 18th century in the United Kingdom when members of parliament disparagingly used the title in reference to Sir Robert Walpole (whose official title was First Lord of the Treasury). Pakistan's constitution (1973) lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Pakistan. In some presidential and all semi-presidential systems, such as those of France, Russia or South Korea, the prime minister is an official generally appointed by the president but usually approved by the legislature and responsible for carrying out the directives of the president and managing the civil service. The nature of his questions left the French in little doubt that he was on board for the concept. However, at the ensuing 1962 French legislative election, de Gaulle's coalition won an increased majority, and Pompidou was reappointed prime minister. * * * * * First of all I must say something to those who … The prime minister proposes a list of ministers to the president of the Republic. Canada has a 'mixed' or hybrid constitution, partly formally codified and partly uncodified. Wilfried Martens, who served as Prime Minister of Belgium, described his role as follows: In the Russian constitution the prime minister is actually titled Chairman of the government while the Irish prime minister is called the Taoiseach (which is rendered into English as prime minister), and in Israel he is Rosh HaMemshalah, meaning "head of the government". (Some constitutional experts have questioned whether this process is actually in keeping with the provisions of the Irish constitution, which appear to suggest that a taoiseach should remain in office, without the requirement of a renomination, unless s/he has clearly lost the general election.) A tipping point in the evolution of the prime ministership came with the death of Anne in 1714 and the accession of George I to the throne. Taiwan's constitution (1946) lists the powers, functions and duties of the President of the Executive Yuan. Examples were Thomas Cromwell under Henry VIII; William Cecil, Lord Burghley under Elizabeth I; Clarendon under Charles II and Godolphin under Queen Anne. Thailand's constitution (1932) lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Thailand. The Republic of Korea's constitution (1987) sections 86–87 list the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Korea. Though it had de facto existed for centuries, its first mention in official state documents did not occur until the first decade of the twentieth century. Itineraries Ottawa, Ontario - January 17, 2021. He or she can base his or her their legitimacy on the president's assignment as prime minister and approval of the cabinet. Greece's constitution (1975) lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Greece. The codified part originally made no reference whatsoever to a prime minister[14] and still gives no parameters of the office. This contrasts with the presidential system, in which the president (or equivalent) is both the head of state and the head of the government. In some Commonwealth countries prime ministers and former prime ministers are styled Right Honourable due to their position (the Prime Minister of Canada, for example). In Israel, the Prime Minister's executive office is officially titled the "Prime Minister's Office" in English, but the original Hebrew term can also be translated as the Prime Minister's Ministry. Over time, however, the title became honorific and remains so in the 21st century.[3]. During the Third and Fourth Republics, the head of government was formally called president of the Council of Ministers (French: Président du Conseil des Ministres), generally shortened to president of the Council (French: Président du Conseil). [2] Before he is allowed to dissolve the Assembly, the president has to consult the prime minister and the presidents of both Houses of Parliament (article 12). Contrary to popular perception, the two posts are separate and need not be held by the one person. For example, right after the legislative election of 1986, President François Mitterrand had to appoint Jacques Chirac prime minister although Chirac was a member of the RPR (Rally for the Republic) and therefore a political opponent of Mitterrand. when its portfolio is critical to that government's mandate at the time): during the Second World War, Winston Churchill was also Minister of Defence (although there was then no Ministry of Defence at the time). These ministers held a variety of formal posts, but were commonly known as "the minister", the "chief minister", the "first minister" and finally the "prime minister". Additionally, Article 20[2] stipulates that the Government "shall determine and conduct the policy of the Nation", and it includes domestic issues, while the president concentrates on formulating directions on national defense and foreign policy while arbitrating the efficient service of all governmental authorities in France. In the case of Ireland, the head of government is occasionally referred to as the Taoiseach by English speakers. On September 27, 1938, when negotiations between Hitler and Chamberlain were strained, the British Prime Minister addressed the British people. CHISINAU, Dec 31 (Reuters) - Moldova's new president, Maia Sandu, on Thursday appointed Foreign Minister Aureliu Ciocoi as the acting prime minister, a presidential decree showed. The extent to which those decisions lie with the prime minister or president depends upon whether they are of the same party. Some officials regarded a powerful Germany as a bulwark against the Soviet Union. However, the post was usually called "prime minister" or "premier" in non-French sources. It is at this point that a modern style of prime minister begins to emerge.[5][6]. Appointment of the prime minister of France requires no approval by the parliament either, but the parliament may force the resignation of the government. After several unsuccessful attempts to strengthen the role in the first half of the twentieth century, a semi-presidential system was introduced under the Fifth Republic. [7][8][9] In some places alternative titles such as "premier", "chief minister", "first minister of state", "president of the council" or "chancellor" were adopted, but the essentials of the office were the same. Although the president's choice of prime minister must be in accordance with the majority in the National Assembly, a prime minister does not have to ask for vote of confidence after his or her cabinet's formation. Where they lose a vote of confidence, have a motion of no confidence passed against them, or where they lose supply, most constitutional systems require either: The latter in effect allows the government to appeal the opposition of parliament to the electorate. The current officeholder is Jean Castex, who was appointed on 3 July 2020. While prime ministers are usually chosen from amongst the ranks of the National Assembly, on rare occasions the president has selected a non-officeholder because of their experience in bureaucracy or foreign service, or their success in business management—Dominique de Villepin, for example, served as prime minister from 2005 to 2007 without ever having held an elected office. [note 1] In some cases, prime ministers may choose to hold additional ministerial posts (e.g. The position, power and status of prime ministers differ depending on the age of the constitution. A … The prime minister may also submit a bill that has not been yet signed into law to the Constitutional Council (article 61). India's constitution (1950) lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of India. The 1958 Constitution includes several provisions intended to strengthen the prime minister's position, for instance by restricting the legislature's power to censure the government. Go to Main Site . By the late 20th century,[10][11] the majority of the world's countries had a prime minister or equivalent minister, holding office under either a constitutional monarchy or a ceremonial president. Recognised by at least one United Nations member. ", Cabinet department / Office of the Prime Minister, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Prime_minister&oldid=1002564749, Articles needing additional references from May 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2010, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles containing Italian-language text, Articles needing additional references from June 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Министър-председател, Ministar-predsedatel, Председатель Правительства Российской Федерации, Predsedatel' Pravitel'stva Rossiyskoy Federatsii, This page was last edited on 25 January 2021, at 01:18. The U.K.’s Cabinet Office includes the Prime Minister’s Office. Walpole chaired cabinet meetings, appointed all the other ministers, dispensed the royal patronage and packed the House of Commons with his supporters. [2] In addition to ensuring that the Government still has support in the House, some bills that might prove too controversial to pass through the normal Assembly rules are able to be passed this way. is most commonly known as the premier, chief minister, governor or minister-president. However, in many jurisdictions a head of state may refuse a parliamentary dissolution, requiring the resignation of the prime minister and his or her government. In the Nordic countries the prime minister is called Statsminister, meaning "Minister of State". Prime Minister’s itinerary for Sunday, January 17, 2021. In these systems, it is possible for the president and the prime minister to be from different political parties if the legislature is controlled by a party different from that of the president. Hence the Irish Taoiseach is formally 'renominated' after every general election. Similarly, though the modern 1937 Irish constitution grants to the Taoiseach the right to make the request, the earlier 1922 Irish Free State Constitution vested the power in the Executive Council (the then name for the Irish cabinet). The RPR had an alliance with the UDF, which gave them a majority. The prime minister is appointed by the president of the Republic, who is theoretically free to pick whomever he pleases for the post. Excerpts of this speech and another before the House of Commons are included here. The following table groups the list of past and present prime ministers and details information available in those lists. In these circumstances it was inevitable that the king's first minister would become the de facto head of the government. Under some presidential systems, such as South Korea and Peru, the prime minister is not the head of government; rather, he or she is only the leader or most senior member of the cabinet. Australia's constitution makes no mention of a Prime Minister of Australia and the office only exists by convention, based on the British model. Prime Minister’s itinerary for Monday, January 18, 2021. Eden did not formally commit himself to the plan, but that was in itself a decision. There is no formal term of office for the Prime Minister- the Prime Minister, and his/her Cabinet, remain in office as long as the Government (essentially, the Cabinet) can maintain a majority in the House of Commons. Conversely, some Prime Minister's Offices incorporate the role of Cabinet, while Australia’s Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet joins them at par. During the Third and Fourth Republics, the head of government was formally called president of the Council of Ministers (French: Président du Conseil des Ministres), generally shortened to president of the Council (French: … The last prime minister not to be First Lord of the Treasury was Lord Salisbury at the turn of the 20th century. Jean Castex was appointed Prime Minister on 3 July 2020. The power of these ministers depended entirely on the personal favour of the monarch. of either the Lok Sabha (Lower House) or Rajya Sabha (Upper House). The President of India; Rajya Sabha; Lok Sabha; The Cabinet Secretariat; Press Information Bureau; Gandhi; Just Climate Action India @ cop21 . The title was however informal and used alongside the equally informal principal ministre d'État ("chief minister of the state") more as a job description. Chamberlain were strained, the head of government of a federated entity e.g.. Than formal powers his/her appointment and dismissal from the Council was usually a fairly weak whose! Most senior minister of hungary Viscount Bolingbroke shared power the People 's Republic of China constitution set a just. Of the prime who is the prime minister of germany is the person who decides when to request parliamentary... 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